Sahar El-Etr

Contact information

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7000 East Avenue, L-452
Livermore, CA 94550
phone: 925 423 0383
fax: 925 422 2282


Education and Professional Experience

Ph.D., Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center (2002)

M.S., Microbiology, University of Hawaii (1998)

B.Sc., Biochemistry and Zoology, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda (1988)

Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford School of Medicine (2002-2006)

LLNL: Currently Staff Scientist in Physical and Life Sciences (PLS) Directorate, Biosciences and Biotechology Division

  • IBC Committee Member and Vice-Chair, 2010 - present
  • Editorial Review Member, Frontiers in Microbial and Cellular Pathogenesis, 2011 - present
  • Editorial Review Member, Frontiers in Microbial Immunology, 2012 - present
  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Biodefense (OMICS Publishing Group)


My research interests are focused on studying host-pathogen interactions of Tier 1 Select Agent bacteria with mammalian cells and envrionmental amoeba. Special focus on applications for development of medical countermeasures. Our work is currently funded by DOD/DTRA.


  • Margolis, J.J., El-Etr, S., Joubert, L.M., Moore, E., Robison, R., Rasley, A., Spormann, A.M., Monack, D.M., 2010. Contributions of Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida chitinases and Sec secretion system to biofilm formation on chitin. Applied and environmental microbiology 76, 596-608.
  • El-Etr, S.H., Margolis, J.J., Monack, D., Robison, R.A., Cohen, M., Moore, E., Rasley, A., 2009. Francisella tularensis type A strains cause the rapid encystment of Acanthamoeba castellanii and survive in amoebal cysts for three weeks postinfection. Applied and environmental microbiology 75, 7488-7500.
  • Park, B., Subbian, S., El-Etr, S.H., Cirillo, S.L., Cirillo, J.D., 2008. Use of gene dosage effects for a whole-genome screen to identify Mycobacterium marinum macrophage infection loci. Infection and immunity 76, 3100-3115.
  • Mehta, P.K., Pandey, A.K., Subbian, S., El-Etr, S.H., Cirillo, S.L., Samrakandi, M.M., Cirillo, J.D., 2006. Identification of Mycobacterium marinum macrophage infection mutants. Microbial pathogenesis 40, 139-151.
  • El-Etr, S.H., Subbian, S., Cirillo, S.L., Cirillo, J.D., 2004. Identification of two Mycobacterium marinum loci that affect interactions with macrophages. Infection and immunity 72, 6902-6913.
  • El-Etr, S.H., Mueller, A., Tompkins, L.S., Falkow, S., Merrell, D.S., 2004. Phosphorylation-independent effects of CagA during interaction between Helicobacter pylori and T84 polarized monolayers. The Journal of infectious diseases 190, 1516-1523.
  • El-Etr, S.H., Yan, L., Cirillo, J.D., 2001. Fish monocytes as a model for mycobacterial host-pathogen interactions. Infection and immunity 69, 7310-7317.
  • El-Etr, S.H., Cirillo, J.D., 2001. Entry mechanisms of mycobacteria. Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library 6, D737-747.
  • Cirillo, S.L., Bermudez, L.E., El-Etr, S.H., Duhamel, G.E., Cirillo, J.D., 2001. Legionella pneumophila entry gene rtxA is involved in virulence. Infection and immunity 69, 508-517.
  • Peruski, L.F., Jr., Kay, B.A., El-Yazeed, R.A., El-Etr, S.H., Cravioto, A., Wierzba, T.F., Rao, M., El-Ghorab, N., Shaheen, H., Khalil, S.B., Kamal, K., Wasfy, M.O., Svennerholm, A.M., Clemens, J.D., Savarino, S.J., 1999. Phenotypic diversity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains from a community-based study of pediatric diarrhea in periurban Egypt. Journal of clinical microbiology 37, 2974-2978.
  • Oyofo, B.A., Peruski, L.F., Ismail, T.F., el-Etr, S.H., Churilla, A.M., Wasfy, M.O., Petruccelli, B.P., Gabriel, M.E., 1997. Enteropathogens associated with diarrhea among military personnel during Operation Bright Star 96, in Alexandria, Egypt. Military medicine 162, 396-400.
  • Wasfy, M.O., Moustafa, D.A., El-Gendy, A.M., Mohran, Z.S., Ismail, T.F., El-Etr, S.H., Oyofo, B.A., 1996. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Egyptian Salmonella typhi strains. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 71, 149-160.
  • Oyofo, B.A., Mohran, Z.S., el-Etr, S.H., Wasfy, M.O., Peruski, L.F., Jr., 1996. Detection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella and Campylobacter spp. by multiplex PCR assay. Journal of diarrhoeal diseases research 14, 207-210.
  • Silberschmidt, G., Schick, M.T., Steffen, R., Kilpatrick, M.E., Murphy, J.R., Oyofo, B.A., el-Etr, S., Gyurech, D., Mourad, A.S., Mathewson, J.T., et al., 1995. Treatment of travellers' diarrhoea: zaldaride compared with loperamide and placebo. European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 7, 871-875.
  • Oyofo, B.A., el-Gendy, A., Wasfy, M.O., el-Etr, S.H., Churilla, A., Murphy, J., 1995. A survey of enteropathogens among United States military personnel during Operation Bright Star '94, in Cairo, Egypt. Military medicine 160, 331-334.
  • Oyofo, B.A., el-Etr, S.H., Wasfy, M.O., Peruski, L., Kay, B., Mansour, M., Campbell, J.R., Svennerholm, A.M., Churilla, A.M., Murphy, J.R., 1995. Colonization factors of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) from residents of northern Egypt. Microbiological research 150, 429-436.